Volcanology has made great advances thanks to technological developments, the operational surveillance of volcano observatories around the world, and the insights of researchers seeking to understand the workings and impacts of volcanoes.
Nevertheless, forecasting eruptions remains extremely challenging owing to the complexity of volcanic processes and the limits to what we can image or measure deep below the ground.
Efforts to manage the risks posed by volcanoes have paid off in saving lives, but this is most demonstrable in cases of larger eruptions for which the signals of impending cataclysm were strong and easier to interpret.
In the case of relatively small eruptions, there may be far more…
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